Thermoforming is the process of heating huge plastic sheets into a very high temperature and cooling them in the required format. Vacuum forming is a sub process or a type of thermoforming where vacuum is applied in between the molds and the plastic to create various shapes. Thermoforming has several advantages and disadvantages compared to the other plastic molding methods like injection molding. In addition to vacuum forming, several other methods like drape forming, twin sheet forming and pressure forming can be incorporated along with thermoforming to produce different kind of products. Several types of plastic can be molded in the method.
Disadvantages of thermoforming
1. Thermoforming is quite costly. Compared to other methods like injection molding, this method can cost up to 50% more.
2. Large plastic sheets are used in the method. They have to be fed into the rollers again and again. This leads to lots of extrusion.
3. The plastic street is stretched in the under pressure in this method. Hence the products formed using thermoforming break at a certain temperature.
4. Thermoforming uses more plastic than other methods. Nearly 10 to 20% more plastic is used to make any product in this method. This adds to cost and creates extensive wastage too.
5. Vacuum forming process done along with thermoforming does not give the required shapes sometimes. The whole process has to be repeated which is expensive as well as time-consuming.
Advantages of thermoforming
There are several advantages in using this method in spite of all these disadvantages.
1. Thermoforming is the only method in which huge plastic sheets can be molded into huge objects. All other methods are used for making small objects only.
2. Though the process is costly, the tools required for the trade or quite cheap. Injection molding machinery is nearly 33% costlier than the Thermoforming machinery tools.
3. Several different products can be prepared in the thermoforming machines. Only certain products can be prepared in other machines. Nearly all types of plastic can be used for the plastic. Other methods use only specific plastic for production.
4. Skilled labor to operate the thermoforming machineries are available in abundant. But, laborers capable of operating machineries of injection molding or vacuum forming are quite less.
5. Superior quality products using more plastic are formed in the method. Hence, they are more durable than the objects created through other local methods.
There are many more advantages in the method. Though costly and a bit time-consuming thermoformed products are preferred by most of the packaging industries due to their high quality.
Ponds need Pond Liners like a building needs a foundation. Among all the materials used for Pond Liners, plastic is the most versatile. It comes in two forms- pre-formed and flexible.
Preformed or rigid plastic liners are strong and long-lasting. They are made of polythene and other recycled plastic material. They do not develop leaks. They are more cost-effective than concrete. An average gardener can set up a small pond within one day using this liner.
Some of these models are fitted above the ground and some below the ground. Rocks and stones may be placed around it to give a natural look. The liners may be both UV- as well as frost-resistant. But they may be difficult to fit because of their different shapes and sizes.
Among the preformed models, the plastic liners may be cheaper than fiberglass, but do not offer support for free-standing use of the pond in a raised water garden. It is difficult to build around a plastic pond and support it evenly. When support is not uniform there is a danger that the plastic liner will crack.
Flexible Pond Liners are also available, like PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride) and HDPE (High Density Poly Ethylene).These liners are not as flexible as rubber. Plastic liners are often used on large holding ponds when economy is a bigger concern than flexibility.
Large ponds require a Pond Liner that is safe for fish and aquatic plant life, inexpensive, easy to install and durable. Polyethylene fits the bill. Medium-density Polyethylene contains up to 5 percent carbon black, which makes it highly UV stable and suited to outdoor life. Twenty and 30 mm polyethylene can be custom-made according to your specifications.
PVC, or Polyvinyl Chloride, has excellent chemical compatibility and puncture resistance, lending itself to membrane liner applications. Some PVC liners contain UV stabilizers which protect them from breaking down when exposed to sunlight. PVC is not a crystalline membrane liner material, so it can elongate in all directions. It is the most cost-effective buried membrane and it has the longest successful use of liner material.
Another plastic is Polypropylene. It has special properties, like outstanding dimension stability, low coefficient of expansion and contraction, wide temperature seaming range, good chemical resistance and no stress cracking.
Plastic has its plusses and minuses, and the choice depends on the individual's requirements.